# The IncSys Academy

The IncSys Academy offers our newest set of online courses for professionals and trainees in the generation and transmission fields. We’ve created the highest quality operator training available, taking our “system of systems” approach to understanding the bulk electric system and relating the core concepts in a logical, practical way. Our online lectures are supported by realistic simulation exercises built in the industry-leading PowerSimulator, jointly developed by IncSys and PowerData, allowing students to directly experience the phenomena taught in the course and earn simulation training CEHs in the process. We believe that system operators should have a nuanced understanding of their system and its behavior, and that theory should always be taught in reference to its practical applications. We feel that our latest curriculum achieves those goals. What makes our training unique?

- Coursework and exercises have been updated for 2017
- The classes are self-paced and available online
- It’s a serious teaching tool, not just a collection of information
- It uses realistic simulation exercises to build critical real-world skills
- Certified operators can earn NERC-approved Continuing Education Hours

IncSys offers the best self-paced operator training for NERC exam prep, license maintenance, and professional development. Sign up for a demo and see the difference for yourself.

**Try IncSys Academy Now**

# Course Catalog

# 3000: Frequency and Balancing

Power System Operator Course 2 is our newest online curriculum for training power system operators. We’ve created what we think is the highest quality operator training available, taking our “system of systems” approach to understanding the bulk electric system and pairing online lectures with practical and realistic simulation exercises built in the industry-leading PowerSimulator. What makes PSOC2 unique?

- The course content is new for 2017
- All modules are available online and self-paced
- It’s a professional teaching tool, not just a collection of information
- It uses realistic simulation exercises to build real-world skills
- We can award NERC-approved Continuing Education Hours to certified operators

If you’re looking for self-paced operator training for certification prep, license maintenance, or professional development, sign up for a demo and see the difference for yourself.

### Full Course Topics

- Mechanical system oscillations and a generic frequency control system
- Energy balance concepts: load, and frequency
- Frequency graphs and generator trips
- Governor components and configurations, droop and gain
- Frequency response: Local plant frequency control modes
- Frequency bias: Governor response following a unit trip
- Automatic Generation Control (AGC): Functions, components, and control modes
- Area Control Error (ACE): How net interchange responds with frequency
- Export scheduling while maintaining ACE within CPS 1&2
- Control Performance Standards and the Real Power Balancing Control Performance standard
- Applying CPS 1&2 under various conditions of generation and interconnection frequency
- Tie lines and flows between Balancing Areas
- Observing ACE, Area Generation, Area Load, and Net Interchange
- Correcting fast and slow time error
- The Disturbance Control Performance Standard, reserve sharing groups, and contingency reserve policies
- Allocating reserves in anticipation of unit trip while maintaining NERC BAL-002 criteria
- Contingency reserves, reserve sharing procedures, and dispatch resources to comply with BAL-002

## 3010: Introduction to Frequency Control

This course teaches the components of a power system from generation through transmission, and supplies useful mental models and analogies illustrating the physical functions of key equipment. Upon completion of this module students will have a solid grasp of:

- Components of control systems
- Energy Balance Concepts
- Frequency components
- System load and frequency
- System Response to generator trip
- Mental models
- PowerSimulator operation

Simulation Exercises:

- Assessment of Islanded Systems
- Sensitivity of Island Load Frequency

## 3020: Governor Components and Operation

This course deals with estimating and responding to frequency drops in an island scenario. The essential physical behaviors of various generators are covered along with the mental models that allow an operator to accurately assess the state of generation in a system, and respond appropriately to changes in capacity, load, and droop. Upon completing this module the student will be able to:

- Calculate Theoretical Machine Generation and Frequency Conditions
- Measure and record Generation, Load, and Frequency Conditions
- Apply droop conditions
- Apply Transient load changes
- Observe oscillations that result from Governor Droop

3020 features two PowerSimulator exercises:

- Load Sharing and Governor droop
- Response to a loss of Generation

## 3030: System Frequency Response

This module teaches the specific, practical frequency assessment and management skills that operators need to keep their system within its limits and to correct potentially costly deviations when they occur. This module also covers AGC systems and their functions, and the characteristics and role of NERC Balancing Authorities. Upon completing this course students should have a firm grasp of:

- Frequency loss
- Transient responses
- AGC
- NERC Balancing Authorities
- Frequency estimation
- Measured vs. steady-state frequency drop

3030 includes two PowerSimulator exercises:

- Response to Loss of Generation in an Interconnection with no LFC
- Governor and AGC Workbook

## 3040: Automatic Generation Control

This module gives a detailed breakdown of AGC operation and the ACE equation. covering primary and secondary control, Net Interchange response, unit control modes, system frequency monitoring, and frequency bias calculation. Anyone who regularly interacts with generation equipment directly or indirectly will find their understanding enhanced by this module. Upon completion the student should have a thorough understanding of:

- AGC operation
- The role of AGCs
- AGCs in system assessment
- Frequency bias calculation
- The ACE equation.

3040 includes two PowerSimulator exercises:

- Calculating Frequency Bias for External Areas
- Unit Trip With LFC Disabled

## 3050: Real Power Balancing Control

This module goes in-depth about the BAL-001 standard, CPS requirements, and how to use the ACE equation to keep a system operating within the NERC-prescribed limits. Students learn how and why the standards were developed, why compliance matters, and the specific calculations needed to accurately assess the system and correct deviations. Upon completion, students should have an excellent understanding of the relationship between generation and demand. They should also demonstrate the ability to keep a power system operating within its limits and respond to a unit trip in the NERC-mandated fifteen minutes.

Simulator exercise:

- Managing ACE during an Interchange Scheduling Adjustment

## 3060: Time Error Correction and Reserve Monitoring

This module defines Time Error, explains how it occurs, explains the relevant guidelines and cultivates the skills necessary to correct time errors and stay compliant. It goes on to cover Reserve Sharing Groups, Contingency Reserve Policies, Operating Reserve Categories, the Contingency Reserve Restoration Period, and NERC Standards on Control Performance. Topics:

- Time Error Correction
- NERC BAL-002 Disturbance Control Standard
- Operation and benefits of Reserve Sharing Groups
- Elements of Contingency Reserve Policies
- Operating Reserve Categories
- Contingency Reserve Restoration Period

Simulation exercises:

- Time Error Correction
- Trip of Puget MSSC

**Sign Up For Training**

# 4000: Transmission Network Flows

Students who complete all modules in PSOC 2 4000 should be well-versed in transmission network flows and capable of identifying potential outages and minimizing/restoring unscheduled outages when they occur. They will be capable of identifying angle differences, calculating PTDF, identifying path impedance, managing buses effectively during contingencies, and complying with all NERC regulations that apply to System Operating Limits. They will be able to operate breakers without causing generator damage or deviating from frequency limits.

### Full Course Topics

- Southern California outage: Causes and Prevention
- Megawatt flow in AC networks: Kirchoff’s and, Ohm’s Laws
- Impedance in series and in parallel circuits: Phase and bus angle differences
- Angle difference and line flow
- Shunt capacitors and load shed
- Megawatt flow along parallel paths
- Power Transfer Distribution Factor (PTDF)
- Line outage distribution factors (LODF) and post-contingency megawatt flow
- NERC Transmission Operator Standards
- Guidelines for use of LODFs, generation shift factors, and N-1 contingencies
- NERC standards for System Operating Limits and time restrictions
- Bus configurations and bus outage impact
- Severe bus outages
- Most severe single contingency
- Remedial Action Plan to reduce an Overload Condition
- Standing phase angles and shaft torque
- Large phase angles, breaker operation, and generator damage
- Reducing standing phase angles.
- Load shedding, shift generation, and phase angle difference
- Phase shifters and MW flows in AC networks
- Phase shifter tap position and MW flows
- Island boundaries, generation , load, operating reserves, and the Most Severe Single Contingency (MSSC)
- Voltage and frequency limits and transmission line MVA ratings
- Resynchronizing islands in the power system
- Controlled shutdowns and re-dispatching generation to accommodate an outage
- Line loading and voltage profiles: Removing transmission lines from service without causing instability or cascading outages

## 4010: SOLs and IROLs and Widespread System Outages

Students will learn the applicable Operating Limits standards and the reasoning behind those standards. They will learn the practical realities of mechanical oscillations and the relationship between system load and frequency. They will learn to apply the single shaft mental model to represent an interconnection, and the consequences of a generator trip for frequency. Topics:

- Mechanical system oscillations
- Single shaft mental model.
- Need for frequency control systems
- Components of a control system
- Energy balance concepts
- Relationship between system load and frequency
- Frequency response to generator trip
- Operation of a simulated power system

Simulation exercises:

- SOLs: Intro and Advanced
- IROLs: Intro and Advanced
- Intro to Exceeding an SOL
- Intro to Exceeding an IROL

## 4020: Megawatt Flow Basics

In this course students will learn the unique characteristics of AC systems carrying Megawatt-level flows. They will learn to apply Kirchhoff’s and Ohm’s laws, the differences between series and parallel impedances, how to calculate bus angle differences, and how to apply these principles to control flows in our simulated Cascadia network. Key topics:

- Principles of MW flow in AC networks
- Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws
- Ohms law
- Series and parallel impedances
- Calculating equivalent impedance between two nodes
- Bus angle differences
- Control flows in the Cascadia network

Exercises:

- Per-Unit System, Typical Values
- DC Load Flow Analogy
- Three Parallel Lines
- LODFs: Satsop-Auburn Line 1
- Satsop-Auburn Line 1 Contingency
- MW Flow Basics

## 4030: LODFs, PTDFs, and Parallel Path Flows

In this course students will learn the fundamentals of Line Outage Distribution Factor (LODFs), Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs), Generation Shift Factors (GSFs), and Parallel Path Flows. After completing this course students will know how to:

- Calculate LODFs from simulator results
- Use LODFs to estimate MW flows following contingencies
- Update LODFs
- Use GSFs and LODFs to handle N-1 Contingencies and comply with TOP Standards
- Re-dispatch generation between two generators
- Re-dispatch one generator and use AGC program to control the rest of the units
- Use Generator shift factors to compare the effectiveness of re-dispatch options
- Update Generation re-dispatch options when transmission configuration changes
- MW flows on parallel paths
- Calculate Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs).
- Open a lower voltage path to remedy an overload situation

This module does not include a simulation exercise.

## 4040: Generator Re-Dispatch

This course introduces the basics of generation redispatch including its impact and the situations that demand it. Using the example of a scenario with an overloaded transmission line, students are guided through the steps for keeping the line below its thermal rating, preventing cascading outages, factoring in ramp-rates, and addressing N-1 contingencies. They will also learn to manage MVAR resources to prevent voltage collapse. Special cases such as radial loads and maxed-out generation capacity are also covered. All contingencies are explained in the context of their electrical, physical, and economic implications.

Simulator Exercise:

- Generator Shift and Power Transfer Distribution Factors

## 4050: Line Outage Distribution Factors

In this module the student will learn the terminology, principles, and procedures relating to Line Outage Distribution Factors (LODFs). From the essential mathematics of LODFs to applications like addressing load bottlenecks and anticipating contingencies complete with their areas of greatest impact, students will learn the theory and skills necessary to incorporate LODFs into their routine system assessments and contingency response plans. They will also learn to use PowerSimulator as a planning and analysis tool (where full-featured Contingency Analysis is not available) in addition to a training aid. This course emphasizes the ability of the operator to predict likely contingencies using simple formulas and a thorough understanding of their system, rather than relying completely on their EMS readouts to supply information in the moment. After completing this course students will be able to:

- Explain how LODFs can be calculated from simulator results
- Explain how LODFs can be used to estimate MW flows following contingencies
- Explain when LODFs need to be updated
- Explain how GSFs and LODFs can be used to comply with TOP standards
- Describe some guidelines for cases where real-time Contingency Analysis is not available

Simulator Exercises:

- Power Transfer Distribution Factors
- Generator Shift and Power Transfer Distribution Factors

## 4060: Managing a Bus Outage

This module explains the common substation configurations and explores the advantages and disadvantages of each from a reliability perspective. Students will learn about planned and forced outages, substation equipment failures, wild animal interface, single line faults, and the circumstances that contribute to secondary outages. They will gain crucial insights into planning and the importance of modeling network topology. Students will get an in-depth introduction to substation configurations and learn to identify fault conditions, design Corrective Action Schemes, and respond to outages by implementing a COR in our simulated Cascadia system.

### Video objectives

- Describe the impact of Bus outages with Breaker and a half, Double Breaker, Single Bus, Main and Transfer, and Ring Bus configurations on system reliability
- Describe how single line faults with a cleared bus in a Breaker and a Half configuration can cause secondary outages of equipment in the same bay
- Describe the weaknesses of planning programs that do not model network topology
- Prepare for handling bus outages in PowerSimulator

Simulator Exercises:

- Mitigating an Main and Transfer Outage
- Mitigating a Breaker-and-a-Half Outage

## 4070: Standing Phase Angles

This module covers the principles that govern standing phase angles and their impact on electrical equipment. Students will learn the physical conditions that increase standing phase angles, the dangers posed by operating equipment when large angles are present, and how to calculate angles manually. They will learn how to avoid damage to equipment by maintaining situational awareness of standing phase angles, use the Synchroscope to confirm their manual calculations, decrease angles where possible and avoid operating equipment where angles are great enough to cause damage. Upon completion students should be able to perform the following tasks:

### Video objectives

- Describe how large standing phase angles can be created
- Describe how the Shock Torque on a synchronous machine increases with:
- The standing phase angle
- Changes in the path impedance between generators before and after breaker closure

- Explain the proper procedures for decreasing standing phase angles
- Describe the possible damage from closing a breaker across large standing phase angles
- Manually calculate standing phase angles

Simulator Exercise:

- Standing Phase Angles

## 4080: Phase Shifters

This segment covers the design and function of phase shifters, their role in controlling megawatt flows, and their relevance to power system operators. Students will learn where phase shifters are commonly found, their role in the transmission system, and the advantages that come with the ability to control the phase angle. The construction of series and exciting voltage phasors will also be covered, as well as the vector relationships and transformer winding connections that allow them to function as they do. Students will then practice altering Tap settings on a phase shifter, observing their effects on a MW flow in the Cascadia system.

### Video Objectives

- How phase shifters control MW flows in AC networks
- How phase shifters can control circulating flows
- How phase shifters are designed
- What Transmission Operators and Reliability Coordinators should know about their system’s phase shifters

Simulation Exercise:

- Phase Shifters

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# 5000: Voltage and Reactive Power Control

Students who have completed all modules of PSOC 2 5000 will have a strong foundation in one of the most difficult subjects in power operations: Reactive power. They will learn to differentiate real and reactive power, the effects of high and low voltages on equipment, the nature and application of MVAR resources and the NERC standards governing voltage scheduling. They will be able to calculate a power triangle, anticipate variations in bus voltage, explain the effect of Ferranti rise, operate tap changers in a simulated system, and restore a system to normal operation.

### Course Objectives

- Real and reactive, power factor, and the power triangle
- MVAR characteristics on transmission lines: Angle differences and voltage magnitude
- Causes and effects of low and high voltages
- Voltage limits, timeframes, and corrective actions
- Strong and weak buses: Inductors, capacitors and loads in a network
- Pole-and-beam analogy for weak and strong buses in an interconnection
- Bus voltage variations with inductors, capacitors, and MW loads in the network
- Dispatch of MVAR reserves, severe over voltage conditions, and the isolating effects of generators
- Automatic Voltage Regulator operation and the role of generators in voltage control
- Steam and Hydro MVAR Capability Curves
- Coordinating generator regulated voltage schedules
- NERC standards for generator operators in maintaining voltage schedules
- Voltage and MVAR characteristics of generators
- Using the simulator to adjust voltage setpoints and predict MVAR output and terminal voltages
- Effects of automatic voltage regulators on generating units
- Surge Impedance Loading and transmission line capacitance/reactance
- MVARs and MW loading on transmission lines
- Ferranti rise in open ended lines
- The effects of heavy transmission line loads on bus voltage
- Voltage and MVAR characteristics of transmissions line in a simulated power system
- Overloaded transmission lines and the effects of tripped lines on the system
- Post-contingency corrective actions
- The effect of raising voltage at the sending end of a transmission line by adding reactive load to a radial bus
- Purpose, application, and construction of shunt capacitors
- Purpose, application, and construction of shunt reactors
- Purpose, application, and construction of Static VAR Systems (SVS)
- Failure modes of capacitors
- The effects of back-to-back switching and trapped charge
- The effect of shunt capacitors on a weak bus
- Placing shunt capacitors next to generators
- “Getting Ahead of the Voltage”
- Static VAR compensators in transmission, industrial, and wind farm applications
- Using shunt capacitors and reactors to control voltages under light and heavy load conditions
- Transformers in transmission networks
- Types of transformers: Their construction and principles of operation
- 3-phase winding configurations of different transformers
- The construction and internal operation of tap changers
- Types of tap changers and the principles of operation for each (GSU, EHV-HV, HV-MV)
- Application of tap changers to control voltage
- Different methods of cooling transformers and their transformer operation
- Different types of temperature indications and how they relate to power operations
- The effects of tap changers in a simulated power system
- Identifying strong and weak buses based on system conditions
- Anticipating load pickup based on time of day and planning for increased load
- Explanations for voltage collapse conditions
- The sensitivity of motor and non-motor loads to voltage
- Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery
- Typical values of power factor for various types of loads
- Reducing the risk of voltage collapse and cascading outages on a simulated system
- System conditions following a triple contingency on a simulated power system
- Changing tap changers following a contingency
- Maintaining system stability by shedding load, decreasing the interchange schedule, and reducing overloads
- Restoring the system to normal operation

## 5010: Reactive Power

This segment demystifies the subject of reactive power and introduces students to its multiple roles in a power system. Students will learn the difference between Real and Reactive power, and how both vary over time with an AC voltage. The importance of Reactive Power to the bulk electric system is explored, with particular emphasis on varying load conditions and the possibility of voltage collapse. Students will learn the most useful mental models and analogies for visualizing the system and making operating decisions in real time, and get a detailed look at how individual types of equipment affect Reactive Power in the presence of different voltage levels. The relevant NERC standards are also summarized.

### Video Objectives

- Explain the need for Reactive Power
- Explain the difference between Real and Reactive Power
- Describe how Real and Reactive Power vary over time with AC Voltage
- Explain the Real and Reactive Power Triangle
- Decompose current into Real and Reactive power components
- Correctly define the Power Factor

Simulation Exercise:

- Reactive Power

## 5020: Reactive Power in Simple Networks

This segment expands on the relationship between Reactive Power and various pieces of equipment, giving the student a detailed understanding of the reactive sources (both static and dynamic) and loads found in the bulk electric system. Students will learn to anticipate the direction of reactive power flow under leading and lagging generator conditions. Teaching time is also devoted to a more detailed view of the consequences of voltage collapse, the conditions that contribute to it, and the actions that a system operator must take to anticipate and prevent it.

### Video Objectives

- Describe Reactive Sources
- Describe Reactive Loads
- Use of Shunt Capacitors
- MVAr flow across a transmission line
- With angle difference
- With voltage magnitude difference

- MVAr Characteristics of Transmission Lines
- Voltage Collapse in Radial System
- Causes of Low Voltage

Simulation Exercise:

- Managing MVAR Reserves in an Island

## 5030: Voltage Operating Limits

This segment introduces students to both upper and lower voltage limits, and explains their significance from the perspective of a large Reliability Coordinator. Students will observe the effect of system load changes on bus voltage and system frequency, and learn to identify the roles of MVAr and MW Load demand in system collapse.

### Video Objectives

- Describe impacts of low voltages
- Describe impacts of high voltages
- Describe how Voltage Limits are applied for a large RC

Simulation Exercise:

- System Effect of Exceeding Voltage Operating limits

## 5040: Pole and Beam Analogy

This segment explains one of the most important mental models in power system operations: The Pole and Beam Analogy. Students will learn to use this model in real-time to identify strong and weak buses in a network, anticipate voltage problems, and inform their decisions. They will also learn to monitor megaVAR reserves and determine where to dispatch them. In the exercises they will learn how to anticipate weak bus and voltage collapse conditions, and prevent or correct them as necessary. The role of generators is also taken into account.

### Video Objectives

- Develop an analogy to describe the interaction of Voltage and MVArs in networks
- Apply the analogy to:
- Identify weak buses in a network
- Identify strong buses in a network
- Anticipate how bus voltages will vary as inductors, capacitors, and MW loads are added to a network
- Anticipate how voltage collapse may occur
- Anticipate when MVAr reserves may be deficient
- Determine best locations for dispatching MVAr resources
- Anticipate severe over-voltages
- Anticipate the isolating effect of generators

Simulation Exercises:

- Impact of Line Outages
- Weak Bus with Extreme High Voltage

## 5050: Generators

This segment will introduce the important aspects of generation including the function of Automatic Voltage Regulators, the limiting elements of both steam and hydro generators, generator kV scheduling, and the role of synchronous generators in Voltage Control. They will also learn to Identify MVAr support and reserves in a system, preserve AVR AUTO mode to prevent voltage collapse, prioritize control actions to return to an N-1 state, and apply the relevant NERC standards used by Generator Operators in voltage scheduling.

### Video Objectives

- Explain how Generator Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) works
- Explain limiting elements of a Steam Generator MVAr Capability Curve
- Explain limiting elements of a Hydro Generator MVAr Capability Curve
- Explain how Generator kV schedules are coordinated
- Explain the key role that Generators play in Voltage Control
- Apply NERC standards for role of Generator Operators in maintaining voltage schedules

Simulation Exercises:

- Managing AVR Control System Failures
- Detecting and Correcting Hacker Activity

## 5060: Transmission Lines

### Video Objectives

- Explain concept of Surge Impedance Loading (SIL)
- Explain how Transmission Lines act as capacitors at light MW loads less than SIL
- Explain how MVArs increase with MW loading
- Explain how heavy transmission line loads can cause bus voltages to drop below minimum limits
- Explain the concept of Ferranti rise for open ended lines

### Exercise: Transmission Line Characteristic or Surge Impedance Loading (SIL)

- Identify the MVAR Charging Characteristics of Transmission Lines
- Distinguish the fact that the Surge Impedance Loading values of transmission lines with common characteristics and different lengths are relatively similar
- Identify that a transmission line Resistively loaded at the Surge Impedance Loading Level will neither absorb or reflect Reactive load
- Experimentally confirm that a transmission line Resistively loaded at the Surge Impedance Loading Level will neither absorb or reflect Reactive load
- Confirm that the PowerSimulator correctly represents the SIL characteristics of Transmission Lines
- Examine the PowerSimulator model of Cascadia in various configurations to observe the Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) characteristics of transmission lines

## 5070: Shunt Capacitors

This segment introduces and explains the concept of Surge Impedance Loading (SIL), describing the basic physical phenomenon and its relevance to transmission lines. Students will learn to calculate SIL manually, and the simplified mental models that make this possible. Students will learn the roles and functions of shunt capacitors with respect to voltage control, switching, and generation. In the simulation exercise, they will learn to assess a system for MVAR resources, confirm that capacitor banks are performing as intended, prevent SOL violations, and employ capacitor banks during a restoration process.

### Video Objective

- Describe the purpose of a shunt capacitor
- Identify where shunt capacitors are applied
- Describe how a shunt capacitor is built
- Identify shunt capacitor failure modes
- Explain how shunt capacitor MVArs vary with bus voltage
- Explain back to back switching in shunt capacitors
- Explain trapped charge in shunt capacitors
- Adding shunt capacitors onto a weak bus
- Adding shunt capacitors next to generators
- Getting ahead of the voltage

Simulation Exercises:

- Shunt Capacitors
- Shunt Reactors

## 5080: Static Var Compensators

This segment is a comprehensive introduction to Static VAR Compensators including their construction, functioning, and the attributes that distinguish them from synchronous condensers. Students will also learn the role of SVCs in an electrical system and their relevance to day-to-day operating scenarios and tasks. Students will learn to monitor and interact with a Static Var System (SVS), assess and adjust the droop setting on an SVC, assess and adjust generator SetPoints, and respond to gradual and transient Load and Voltage Changes.

### Video Objectives

- Identify the purpose of an SVC
- Describe how an SVC is built
- Describe how an SVC operates
- Identify the MVAr characteristics of an SVC
- Explain how Static VAR Compensators are applied in:
- Transmission Applications
- Wind Farm Applications
- Industrial Applications

Simulation Exercise:

- Static Var Compensators

## 5090: Transformers

This segment is designed to give students a working understanding of transformers, one of the most vital pieces of equipment in any interconnection. It identifies the various types of transformers that are commonly found in the bulk electric system and explains the role of each one in a power system. Students will also learn how transformers are constructed, how to identify the external components of a substation transformer, the environmental and electrical conditions that can damage them or cause them to fail, and the consequences of such failures for an electrical system and a utility.

### Video Objectives

- Explain role of transformers in power transmission networks
- Identify different types of transformers
- Principles of operation
- Describe how transformers are built
- Describe common three-phase winding configurations
- Construction and operation of Tap Changers
- Temperature Monitoring and Control
- Using Transformer Taps to control voltage
- Some Operator Guides

Simulation Exercise:

- Transformers

## 5100: Transformer Tap Changers

This segment expands on 5090, covering Transformer Tap Changers and their functions in the US Bulk Electric System. Students will learn where tap changers are installed, the differences between Off-Load and Under Load varieties, and the different conditions under which each can be operated safely. It gives considerable detail about the mechanical and electronic operation of both types. Students will also learn the load conditions that require the operation of tap changers, the correct procedures for doing so, and the substation equipment configurations that commonly surround tap changers. Students will also be given context and key insights from the EPRI research concerning transformer tap management. The simulation exercises put students through their paces using tap changers to respond to a diverse selection of voltage control scenarios.

### Video Objectives

- Describe the purpose of a Tap Changer
- Describe the construction of a Tap Changer
- Describe the operation of a Tap changer
- Explain the difference between Off-Load and Under-Load Tap Changers
- Identify the conditions under which Tap Changers are operated
- Explain how to use Tap changers to limit circulating current
- Explain “make before break” operation

Simulation Exercise:

- Tap Changers

## 5200: Loads

This segment gives a detailed overview of the role of various loads in an electrical system, and the ways that a power system operator must factor them in during routine operations and to prevent or correct voltage collapse.

### Video Objectives

- Need for understanding load response to voltage
- Historical approach to modeling power system loads
- Development of dynamic models for power system loads
- Development of dynamic models for power system loads
- Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR)
- Power Factors for various loads

Simulation Exercise

- Loads

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